When writing a grade in its ordinal form, use words for Grades 1—9 and numerals for Grades 10, 11, and Also, if you are writing four or more grades in the same sentence, then use numerals for all of them. Use a hyphen with a grade number when the ordinal form is used as a compound adjective before a noun.
Otherwise, do not use a hyphen with a grade number. If several ordinal grades are presented in a series of compound adjectives, then use hyphens with each. Sometimes these rules intersect in ways that may make a sentence look awkward; in the sentence below, it is correct to use a word for ninth and numerals for 10th and 11th , and although there is nothing wrong with this from an APA Style perspective, it may set off internal alarm bells for you.
Often the awkwardness can be resolved by rephrasing the sentence. Although this is not required, it may make you feel happier about your writing, and we are all for you feeling happy about your writing. For more on numeral usage, see Sections 4.
If you have additional questions about how to write about grades in APA Style, leave a question in the comments section.
Posted by Chelsea Lee at Twelfth-grade students received diplomas at graduation. The main thing to bear in mind with the APA writing style is that it is currently undergoing many changes, as a response to the electronic information age. The difficulty with APA style, and with any style, is that it has adapted and evolved over the years, and an older teacher or professor may have a completely different preference to a younger one.
For example, older supervisors may prefer you to stick with the passive voice, whereas modern writing and convention has moved towards using active where possible.
There really is no correct way to write a paper , as things stand, so it is most important to make sure that you are consistent and that the paper has a nice 'flow', and is readable. The principle is not as complicated as it seems, because it is simple an extension of what you already know.
One of the major changes in APA format is that, in a co-authored paper, you can use 'We'. For example, 'We found that', or 'Our research showed that'. However, just to complicate things, some academics are pushing for change towards using the first person, in order to avoid the passive completely.
APA writing style needs to be formal. Avoid using slang words and avoid contractions, such as 'don't', 'won't', couldn't. Formality used to mean sticking with a passive style of writing, but attitudes towards using the passive voice have changed over the past few years. Even ten years ago, most disciplines required the passive voice. That has changed, and it is better to try to make a paper as active as possible.
For example, instead of 'It was found that…' you could try "Bandura discovered" or "The results showed that…". With APA writing style, it is important to try to remain neutral with the terminology that you use. This includes avoiding gender specific language, wherever possible. For example, if you are talking about Albert Einstein and Jane Goodall, you can use 'he' or 'she'. If all of your test subjects are women, you can also use 'she', but if the group is mixed, you must use a neutral term such as 'subjects', or 'people'.
You must avoid pejorative terms such as AIDS 'victims' or cancer sufferers. These may seem to be fine distinctions, but try to remember that language changes over time and a word that is acceptable now may not be suitable in twenty years. Look at an anthropology paper from the early Twentieth Century, where indigenous people are referred to as 'Savages' and 'Heathens,' and you will see why this is important.
If you have any doubt, use terminology found in the current literature or ask your supervisor - finding a neutral tone can be a minefield! The constantly evolving APA writing style is undergoing some major changes, mainly as an attempt to make scientific papers more accessible to non-scientists.
The main thing to remember is that the APA writing style guide is a general guide, not a set rules. Listen to your supervisor or teacher, because they mark the paper, and try not to be too bogged down in the details. If you complete a great research project, and write an interesting paper, it is unlikely that you will be penalized. Check out our quiz-page with tests about:.
APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.
The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. APA Style Introduction // Purdue Writing Lab Loading.
The authority on APA Style and the 6th edition of the APA Publication Manual. Find tutorials, the APA Style Blog, how to format papers in APA Style, and other resources to help you improve your writing, master APA Style, . The APA writing style has evolved through time and several changes have been adapted in response to the electronic information age. What follows are some useful pointers for those of you who have been asked to write a paper using the APA format. In general, your paper should follow these formatting guidelines.
APA Paper Formatting & Style Guidelines Your teacher may want you to format your paper using APA guidelines. If you were told to create your citations in APA format, your paper should be formatted using the APA guidelines as well. General guidelines: Use white 8 ½ x 11” paper. Make [ ]. Do you need to write an APA style paper but not sure where to begin? Here are some quick guidelines and tips to get you started on your paper.