The onus, though, to break this cycle would clearly fall on the teacher; and the failure to do so would produce discrimination. Recently, the news has been filled with reports of protests emerging on college campuses regarding the issue of racial discrimination.
The Associated Press reported on the 9th of November , for example, that at the University of Missouri:. Protesters at this university called for the resignation of the president of the system; and in fact, they actually got this, along with the resignation of the chancellor as well.
The protest, though, would seem to have pertained not so much to racial discrimination within the educational system per se, as to the fact that leaders within the university were doing little to address the broader problem of a culture of racism and discrimination on campus. In any event, this kind of protest has emerged at several other campuses in the United States as well. Again, the main issue here is not specifically that minority students feel that they are receiving a lower quality of education; rather, the issue is broader in scope and pertains to matters of respect and representation for minority students within the college campus setting.
It thus opens up to the broader sociological problems regarding race that have plagued the United States for centuries. In particular, it is worth considering the possible relationship between this recent wave of college protests against discrimination on the one hand, and the recent string of police shootings of civilians on the other. Notably, for example, the University of Missouri flagship campus is located just miles away from the town of Ferguson, where Michael Brown, a young Black man, was shot to death by a police officer.
It is possible that these events have had the effect of sensitizing young people in the United States to issues of race: One obvious reaction to the protesters on the college campuses would be, of course, that they are creating much ado about more or less nothing. But from the perspective of the protesters, reaching such a conclusion would itself be indicative of the very racism and discrimination that they are protesting within education in particular and American society in general.
When considering the relationship between discrimination and education, it is impossible to avoid a consideration of the concept of affirmative action and racism. Broadly speaking, affirmative action refers to the policy of establishing quotas that must be met within a given institution—such as a university—regarding the number of minority persons who are accepted into the institution.
In practice, this can sometimes mean for example that a less objectively qualified Black student may gain access to a university over a more objectively qualified White student, due to the fact that the quota regarding Black students has to be met. In principle, the policy of affirmative action can be understood as a form of providing reparations to people from minority backgrounds due to their historical treatment within the United States.
As Cobb has put it:. Affirmative action in education is premised on the idea that due to their historical marginalization within the United States, people from minority backgrounds, and especially Blacks, may have a sociologically less equitable chance of making it into colleges and proceeding to meet with success within society.
Therefore, quotas are established in order to offset this effect of historical discrimination and thus level the playing field.
In summary, the present essay has consisted of a discussion of several aspects of the issue of discrimination in education within the United States. The essay began by considering discrimination within the public school system, proceeded to discuss the recent protests at colleges across the nation, and finally reflected on the concept of affirmative action and its relationship to discrimination in education.
An important conclusion that can be drawn from this discussion is that the relationship between discrimination and education in the United States is primarily a structural one. That is, contemporary discrimination is based not so much on individual-level malice against minority persons but rather population-level structural factors that predispose persons from minority populations to have diminished access to all the opportunities of the educational system.
Hartocollis, Anemona, and Jess Bidgood. How Race and Ethnicity Matter. Sacks, David, and Peter Thiel. Civil Rights Data Collection. Ultius Blog, 01 Dec. Click here for more help with MLA citations. Click here for more help with APA citations. Click here for more help with CMS citations. Individuals are permitted to think racist thoughts and write racist texts, but they are not permitted to make hiring decisions, sell real estate, or engage in other sorts of differentiation on the basis of race.
This legal prohibition does not, however, mean that discrimination has ended. In order to penalize an individual or a company for discrimination, the person who has been discriminated against must prove not only that discrimination occurred, but also that the individual or company accused of discrimination intended to discriminate Crenshaw, This makes it very difficult for individuals to win racial discrimination law suits. Thus racial discrimination continues in many aspects of life in the contemporary United States.
For instance, in alone, the US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission EEOC received over 30, charges of racial discrimination in employment; in , this figure increased to over 33, Other areas of life in which racial discrimination continues to play a particularly significant role include housing, the criminal justice system, and healthcare.
Yet despite the continuing significance of racial discrimination, discrimination has declined considerably since the middle of the twentieth century. In , it was still completely legal for school districts and schools to segregate education from kindergarten through graduate school—if graduate schools were even available for nonwhite students.
It was legal for real estate agents to refuse to show homes or apartments to members of certain races, and individuals could even write language into the deed of their home prohibiting its sale to nonwhite buyers.
Classified ads for employment could say "whites only," and several states still prohibited interracial marriage. Things have come a long way. These changes did not come easily. They required concerted efforts by social movements, lobbyists, religious leaders, educators, and others. The civil rights movement of the s and s played a key part in effecting the social changes that led to the end of legal discrimination. For instance, the leaders of the movement coordinated sit-ins and other acts of civil disobedience that led to the desegregation of lunch counters and public transportation throughout the South.
They also led voter registration drives that helped elect black candidates to public office. These black politicians then became instrumental in passing laws that reduced discrimination. Among the crucial legal gains of the civil rights movement were:. Inspired by the civil rights movement, social movements representing American Indians, Asian Americans, and Latinos emerged during the s and s, and these movements also pushed for an end to discrimination. Among other things, these groups pushed immigration reform, changes in college and university admissions policies, the honoring of treaties with American Indian tribes, and the establishment of ethnic studies departments that would expand knowledge and teaching about people of color.
Many—though far from all—of these goals were attained. For example, the US Supreme Court has ruled in favor of affirmative action policies in higher education in three cases: Regents of the University of California v. Bakke , Gratz v. It is important to not understate the gains these movements made in reducing racism and discrimination in the United States, but the problem has not disappeared. In fact, the Supreme Court invalidated part of the Voting Rights Act when they voted in June to allow nine states to change their election laws without getting federal approval in advance Liptak, If racism and discrimination continue to make a significant impact on the lives of people of color in the contemporary United States, what can be done about it?
Scholars and activists have made several proposals. Some focus on the importance of education and diversity or multiculturalism for changing the culture of racism.
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Research Report Kevin Clerkley Discrimination Thesis Statement: Throughout the United States, there are millions of Americans who are struggling against direct and indirect discrimination.
National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #06‐11 June, The Dynamics of Discrimination Devah Self-Reports and Attitude Research on Discrimination Rather than relying on the perceptions of victims, another line of social science research focuses. Free Discrimination papers, essays, and research papers. Discrimination Lives Within Everyone - Racial discrimination has affected the world in many ways.
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