In turn, each basic section addresses several topics, and may be divided into subsections Table 1. In the Introduction, the authors should explain the rationale and background to the study. What is the research question, and why is it important to ask it?
While it is neither necessary nor desirable to provide a full-blown review of the literature as a prelude to the study, it is helpful to situate the study within some larger field of enquiry.
The research question should always be spelled out, and not merely left for the reader to guess. The Methods section should provide the readers with sufficient detail about the study methods to be able to reproduce the study if so desired. Thus, this section should be specific, concrete, technical, and fairly detailed. The study setting, the sampling strategy used, instruments, data collection methods, and analysis strategies should be described.
In the case of qualitative research studies, it is also useful to tell the reader which research tradition the study utilizes and to link the choice of methodological strategies with the research goals [ 3 ]. The Results section is typically fairly straightforward and factual. All results that relate to the research question should be given in detail, including simple counts and percentages. Resist the temptation to demonstrate analytic ability and the richness of the dataset by providing numerous tables of non-essential results.
The Discussion section allows the most freedom. This is why the Discussion is the most difficult to write, and is often the weakest part of a paper. Structured Discussion sections have been proposed by some journal editors [ 4 ].
While strict adherence to such rules may not be necessary, following a plan such as that proposed in Table 1 may help the novice writer stay on track. References should be used wisely. Key assertions should be referenced, as well as the methods and instruments used.
However, unless the paper is a comprehensive review of a topic, there is no need to be exhaustive. Also, references to unpublished work, to documents in the grey literature technical reports , or to any source that the reader will have difficulty finding or understanding should be avoided. Having the structure of the paper in place is a good start.
However, there are many details that have to be attended to while writing. Another concerns non-native writers of English: A paper usually goes through several drafts before it is submitted.
When revising a paper, it is useful to keep an eye out for the most common mistakes Table 2. If you avoid all those, your paper should be in good shape. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.
It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Close mobile search navigation Article navigation. Primacy of the research question. Structure of the paper. Writing a research article: Primacy of the research question A good research paper addresses a specific research question. Structure of the paper Once the research question is clearly defined, writing the paper becomes considerably easier.
The video discusses the purpose of publication, how scholarly journals differ from other publications, the steps in the publication process, the parts of basic journal article, and tips on writing. While academic disciplines vary on the exact format and style of journal articles in their field, most articles contain similar content and are divided in parts that typically follow the same logical flow.
Following is a list of the parts commonly found in research articles. The introduction and literature review sections will introduce the problem and provide general information. The following section will describe each of these parts in more detail. Additional information can be found in the Resources section of this module and in the Suggested Readings.
The title should be specific and indicate the problem the research project addresses using keywords that will be helpful in literature reviews in the future. The abstract is used by readers to quickly review the overall content of the paper. Journals typically place strict word limits on abstracts, such as words, making them a challenge to write. The abstract should provide a complete synopsis of the research paper and should introduce the topic and the specific research question, provide a statement regarding methodology and should provide a general statement about the results and the findings.
Because it is really a summary of the entire research paper, it is often written last. The introduction begins by introducing the broad overall topic and providing basic background information. It then narrows down to the specific research question relating to this topic. It provides the purpose and focus for the rest of the paper and sets up the justification for the research. The purpose of the literature review is to describe past important research and it relate it specifically to the research problem.
It should be a synthesis of the previous literature and the new idea being researched. The review should examine the major theories related to the topic to date and their contributors. It should include all relevant findings from credible sources, such as academic books and peer-reviewed journal articles.
The methods section will describe the research design and methodology used to complete to the study. The general rule of thumb is that readers should be provided with enough detail to replicate the study.
In this section, the results of the analysis are presented. How the results are presented will depend upon whether the research study was quantitative or qualitative in nature. This section should focus only on results that are directly related to the research or the problem. Graphs and tables should only be used when there is too much data to efficiently include it within the text. This section should present the results, but not discuss their significance. This section should be a discussion of the results and the implications on the field, as well as other fields.
The hypothesis should be answered and validated by the interpretation of the results. This section should also discuss how the results relate to previous research mentioned in the literature review, any cautions about the findings, and potential for future research.
The research paper is not complete without the list of references. This section should be an alphabetized list of all the academic sources of information utilized in the paper. The format of the references will match the format and style used in the paper.
Parts of a Research Paper - The parts of a typical research paper are described in these two links and the sites also provide links for additional resources, including the APA style manual. The series of videos provide a comprehensive, in-depth look at why publishing is important, how to get started, what are the parts of the paper and what order should they be written in, tips on how to write each section and additional suggestions that will assist writers in getting their work published.
Publishing Your Research - The website provides a series of 10 video episodes by the American Chemical Society that address all aspects of writing a journal article for submission and tips on how to improve your writing. The Literature Review - Researchers are required to know the research that has already been done in their field. The Literature Reviews examine previous related research. This video lecture explains how to write a Literature Review, and examines which elements are required in one.
There is also a link for exploring alternate formatting options. How to Avoid Plagiarism Tutorial - This comprehensive guide provides information on citation rules, examples of citations, and guidelines for paraphrasing, summarizing and using quotations.
Writing research papers does not come naturally to most of us. The typical research paper is a highly codified rhetorical form [1,2]. Knowledge of the rules—som.
Scientific research articles provide a method for scientists to communicate with other scientists about the results of their research. A standard format is used for these articles, in which the author presents the research in an orderly, logical manner. This doesn't necessarily reflect the order in.
Writing any academic paper, in whatever discipline, can be an extremely daunting task. Here are a few tips on article writing. Whether you need to write a word essay or a 10 word dissertation, it can be difficult to set out in your mind exactly in what direction you need to travel. HOW TO WRITE AN EFFECTIVE RESEARCH PAPER • Getting ready with data • First draft • Structure of a scientific paper • Selecting a journal Make them the central theme of the article. Note good and bad writing styles in the literature. Some are simple and easy to follow, some are just too complex.
Writing a research manuscript is an intimidating process for many novice writers in the sciences. One of the stumbling blocks is the beginning of the process and creating the first draft. This paper presents guidelines on how to initiate the writing process and draft each section of a research manuscript. This page lists some of the stages involved in writing a library-based research paper. Although this list suggests that there is a simple, linear process to writing such a paper, the actual process of writing a research paper is often a messy and recursive one, so please use this outline as a.