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❶Nevertheless, the conception of childhood is one of the factors that are the basis for whether children are used as soldiers.




There are no cultural or ethnic boundaries when it comes to the effects of war on a family. This is a very limited understanding of terrorist groups. In almost every nation, religion, and ethnic group, there are factions of individuals who are dedicated to a political cause. They are so dedicated that they are willing to commit acts of violence on a large scale in order to make their point and force those in power to satisfy their demands.

Most often, these groups have an agenda which is antithetical to the aims and best interests of the larger population; something that does not matter to them. Terrorists will do whatever it is they deem necessary in order to achieve their ends.

The base word terror explains exactly how they choose to force…… [Read More]. Sierra Leone Over the Last. With the assistance of world organizations, however, and with the health services offered to Guinea refugee camps, many individuals have or are learning simple and inexpensive ways to reduce these deaths. Rehydration salts, trained birth attendants, improved sanitation, increases in the number of health facilities, immunization, vitamins, insecticide, and other basic health care is expected to drastically increase the population by reducing infant and child mortality.

For nearly two decades, Sierra Leone's population has been deprived due to war, poverty, poor education, and a host of other problems. In most cases, corrupt political officials and rampant rebel forces have been the cause of the problem.

In recent times, however, with the assistance of world organizations, foreign investment, and a more stable political structure, the population of Sierra Leone has seen resounding increases in both population as well as standard of living. There can be no question there is still much…… [Read More]. Conflict in Drc Case Study Conflict in. DC is the third largest country in the entire Africa and stands at 12th position in terns of size in the world scale with 2, Square Kms U.

Department of State, It is the eight in the world in terms of population and fourth in Africa with the 71 million populations. Thomas Wolfe It Was He. Many expatriates are able to find large communities of their own nationalities far flung from their homes, and this in another significant factor in the choice of expatriates to stay away from home United Nations, When people of any origin begin to build their own community in a new place, it is harder for them to move away from that which has become safe and familiar.

Perhaps, of all people, the African-Americans who were originally brought to the new world as slaves suffer from not being truly able to return home again.

Brought to a country against their will, forced to take on names unfamiliar to their tongue and work for men who claimed dominance and supremacy above them, the African-American population is quite possibly the most interesting diaspora of all. The Museum of African Diaspora provides and interesting look into a culture trying to regain itself, by slave…… [Read More]. Global Governance Human Security. A graduate program for professional improvement will prime me for a profession in business, civil service, and nonprofit settings.

Moreover, completing a graduate degree signifies steadfastness, purpose, strength of mind and resilience, and individuals who possess these notable qualities are in great demand to fill innumerable positions. According to NYU , my advancement within an organization lies in my ability to prove success in a long-term state requiring strength, discipline, and the willingness to work cooperatively with others. On the personal level, earning a graduate degree will not only expand and strengthen my education, but it will also instill significant skills and fresh knowledge to become a successful frontrunner and innovator at the conclusion of…… [Read More].

Human Security in Asia. Threats to security are seen to come not only from external military aggression but also from a myriad of internal challenges -- separatist movements, social unrest, or the collapse of the political system. What these definitions of security lack, however, is a full understanding of the term; military operations and protection from terrorist attacks are most certainly important factors in a nation's security, however, they are far from being the total measure of peace and stability in a society.

International Law and Human Trafficking. The new law has prosecuted traffickers in cases. These traffickers had victims in that year alone. This law imposes penalties from 10 years imprisonment to life imprisonment Kyodo.

The capacity of the national government in fighting the problem of human trafficking has been limited UNODC It is particularly limited in implementing policy changes in remote areas where traffickers operate. Anti-trafficking groups are looking into the situation.

The UNODC addresses the issue by implementing projects and participating in partnership initiatives in the country. These projects and initiatives include increasing public awareness of the problem, provision of technical assistance for the law enforcement sector and the judiciary, greater and easier access to service providers and enhancing their capabilities UNODC.

Cambodia Reports say that Cambodia is a source, transit and destination country for human trafficking HumanTrafficking. Human traffickers consist of organized crime syndicates, parents,…… [Read More]. The Inextricable Correlation between Human Trafficking and Prostitution Introduction Despite ongoing efforts by the international community, human trafficking remains a global problem today.

Tens of thousands of men, women and children are routinely exploited by human traffickers each year, and the practice generates billions of dollars in criminal proceeds at home and abroad. In fact, after drugs and gun-running, sex trafficking is the largest source of money for criminal organizations in the United States.

Given the enormity of the problem and the vast sums of money that are involved, it is not surprising that the international community has not been successful in eliminating this practice.

To determine the facts, this paper provides an analysis of the relevant literature concerning the correlation between prostitution and human trafficking to demonstrate that the two have an inextricable but difficult to quantify effect on each other. A summary of the research and important findings…… [Read More]. Systems of Power and Inequality in Early.

Systems of Power and Inequality In early March of , a minute video on the plight of African children received more than 21 million YouTube views. The video vividly depicts how the guerilla warlord Joseph Kony, leader of the Lords esistance Army LA , reportedly abducted over 60, children who were subsequently forced to become child soldiers or sex slaves over the course of the civil war.

Captured children who did not cooperate as said to have been mutilated and murdered. Production and dissemination of the video was a result of the efforts of an American charity called Invisible Children. In interviews with the press following the viral reception of the video, Invisible Children campaigner Jason ussell stressed the importance of the video as an example of how social media allows people all over the world to actually see other people -- see, as in the struggles, challenges, plights, and victories…… [Read More].

English Humanities Honors class. Vogt, period 1, Spring Some countries are known to express zero tolerance regarding gun ownership while others promote the belief that it is perfectly normal for guns to be accessible to the masses. Particular groups believe that harsh gun laws are imposed by bigoted politicians who are unable to understand matters from an objective point-of-view and certain communities consider that gun ownership needs to be controlled using severe means.

All things considered, gun laws worldwide differ on account of Constitutions and depending on…… [Read More]. Tamil Tiger of Sri Lanka. Through their history, the Tigers have financed their operations with bank robberies and drug smuggling, among other illegal acts. They are also believed to get much of their support from ethnic Tamils living in Western Europe and Canada. Hence, statement of the problem "the daily struggle that goes on between the Government of Sri and the Tamil Tigers" De, Therefore, the hypothesis of this research will be "The Tamil Tigers of Sri Lanka pose a great security threat to the post conflict government of Sri Lanka.

Justification of this study will be done by conducting a critical assessment of the facts gathered from people who have successfully migrated due to the threat…… [Read More]. Corruption When We Think of. In defense of this vote, he says, "This was a great chance to really get our budget under control, and I was glad to stand up and vote for the kind of smart fiscal policy that folks in the Fifth District expect" Perriello qtd.

Perriello believes that responsible spending is not an issue for Democrats or Republicans but rather an "American issue" Perriello qtd. Perriello states that while both of these bills contain good ideas, he wishes "we could have combined ideas from both sides of the aisle to produce a better, bi-partisan solution" Perriello qtd.

Nursing Home in Liberia in. Identify effective approaches to bridging the cross-cultural gap that may prevent families from using nursing home facilities when they are in the elders' best interests. Strategies The following strategies will be used to help achieve the above-stated goals: Develop expertise in writing grant applications.

Identify nongovernmental organizations that provide funding for these types of social programs. Formulate a community education program to inform the people of Liberia of the need for long-term care facilities for the elderly when immediate family members are unable or unavailable to do so.

Develop a training regimen that can be used to help employees become familiar with the day-to-day care needs of the elderly and what part they will play in the process. Tactics Given the current reluctance of the international community to make substantive investments in Liberia, the short-term tactics used to achieve the above-stated goals would require an…… [Read More]. Quite often, victims are not forthcoming about their situation and it is the social worker, not the victim, that must initiate the necessary proceedings to ensure that justice is done.

Also, studying human trafficking can enable policy makers to create laws that are more sensitive to the needs of victims, and to enact in more proactive policy responses to deal with the crime. Much like victims of domestic violence, there is often profound ambivalence and fear when victims of human trafficking come forward. But the problem is widespread: Human trafficking involves forced labor, bonded labor, debt bondage among migrant…… [Read More]. Diamond Wars in Western Africa.

Diamond ars in estern Africa Throughout estern Africa, the quest for diamonds has taken control of many of people and affected the stability of economic and governmental status throughout the nation. The diamond mines have caused civil wars, which have resulted in many casualties over the years.

Possibly the major cause of the diamond wars is human nature, as it is human nature that sparks the desire to own diamonds. Due to the amount of people who are seeking diamonds and the limited resources of the mineral, the diamond market has become a major source of conflict in estern Africa. Throughout estern Africa, rebel groups have formed in an effort to gain control over diamond mines in Angola, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. The Diamond ars have destroyed these areas, which could potentially become well-developed nations if the conflicts did not exist.

Members of Apple One of. At which point, workers are either fired or arrested by the police. The subcontractor will then, hire other people to work in the place of employees that are creating problems. Over the course of time, this can cause feelings of animosity inside the community.

Moreover, there are no social responsibility practices for these regions. This means that no one is focusing on understanding the social, economic and environmental impact of the company's activities on different areas. Once this occurs, is when there is the possibility that there will be some kind of backlash from these issues. This information is showing how Apple and its third party suppliers are walking a thin line when it comes to their practices in regions such as China.

Therefore, this source is supporting the hypothesis that was presented earlier. GE Global Initiatives General Electric GE is a huge, multi-national company and its business decisions can have significant impacts, both positive and negative, not only on countries where it actively operates but also on countries within its supply chain. As a result, its global initiatives can be very broad and seemingly outside of GE's scope of operations.

GE's human rights initiative is one such global initiative. Human rights violations are rife in the international community, particularly in areas of labor, and GE has made a commitment to reducing or eliminating human rights violations in its supply chain wherever possible. One way that GE has done so is by participating in a boycott Myanmar because of the relationship between Myanmar's old government and human rights abuses.

However, recent elections may have changed the reality of business in Myanmar, and GE is taking steps to ensure that, if it engages in business…… [Read More]. Because of our past conversations, you are aware that Mario and I have had many disagreements about how to raise Dominic. The situation has not improved much, although I know that Mario is trying to be a better parent. But I can no longer ignore the impact that Mario's interactions with Nicky are having. Mario continually loses his temper with Nicky and is now swatting Nicky on the head, in addition to smacking him on his bottom.

Nicky now flinches whenever Mario comes near him. Your brother is usually on his best behavior when his family or when friends are around, but I know you have seen Mario lose his temper with…… [Read More]. Childhood Stress Between a Touchy. A study conducted by ekert et al. The results of the study confirmed other studies' results regarding the impact of overprotection.

As was found with the other studies, overprotection resulted in anxiety and depression among college students. Discussion This paper has shown the detrimental effects of overprotective parenting. Overprotective parenting results from a desire from parents trying to maintain psychological control their children.

This may be a result of the parents own anxieties which creates worrisome parenting. Parents attempt to protect their children from experiencing stress. However, in this attempt parents are actually creating many harmful effects. These effects may begin prior to birth and be exhibited…… [Read More].

Camp Hope From Home Family. Children then meet with their devotional groups to discuss how to apply the lesson to their own lives. While the camp is the main focus of the institution, an extension program for older children of deployed soldiers or those who have died as a result of their deployment is another important feature. This feature presents one-on-one counseling opportunities. The young adults have the opportunity to sit down with Biblical counselors and discuss problems that range from psychological disorders to difficulty connecting with their deployed parent.

Although one-on-one counseling is the major component of the extension program, group counseling is also available. Further, the group runs a Bible study once a week that allows young adults to consider their predicaments through a spiritual lens. Knowing that these people are often in college, working, or trying to get their lives on the road, the institution offers some features of the extension program…… [Read More].

Baeh's Reflection of Childhood and. The horrific sequence in which the war first becomes visible to the author tells with unflinching honesty the degree to which violence had come to rule his former home. This would be part and parcel to his rehabilitation though, with four years of war behind him. Baeh would have to remind himself that he had been a victim and not the perpetrator during the four years of his childhood that were deployed to this brutal conflict. A perfectly fitting metaphor for the moment of his innoncence being taken from his is that in which he describes a woman carrying a dead baby.

Baeh tells that "the image of that woman and her…… [Read More]. Stress and the Breakup of. Another study delves into how much children "matter" to their stepparents -- because "to matter is to be noticed, to be an object of concern, and to be needed by a specific individual" Schenck, et al. The authors posit that when children "feel secure and accepted in their parental relationships, they feel less threatened by stressful events" p.

This study, published in the journal Fathering, involved adolescents in stepfather families. The child participants were in 7th grade at the outset of the research; the end result of the research concluded, "mattering to both fathers [stepfather and biological father] was significantly related to adolescents' mental health problems" Schenck, p. Further, it was found through teacher interviews that when a child "mattered" to the stepfather the child was more apt to "externalize" his problems, which reduces stress and…… [Read More].

Teaching Our Kids to Kill. Further extending the application of the stimulus-response model, it can also be argued that weapons such as guns are being heavily associated with numerous components of flight simulators such as killing. Weapons such as guns are associated with the feeling of being able to kill or assault the enemy in the video game. Unfortunately, these interest or passion for weapons is oftentimes also associated with real life weapons.

To prove, news of children playing guns or accidentally firing real guns are nothing new today. Statement 5 The fifth statement of this assignment is brief but very meaningful and insightful. It simply says, "Don't just stand there…do something. There is a great deal of literature on what military families experience before, during, and after deployment, and this paper provides several peer-reviewed articles that discuss and assess the situations that military families must deal with during deployment.

The Literature -- Psychological Adjustment for Children The psychological adjustments that children must make -- especially children with "…preexisting psychological conditions" such as depression…… [Read More]. Ursula Le Guin in the Story The. Ursula Le Guin In the story "The Ones ho alk Away from Omelas," author Ursula Le Guin has created a dystopia wherein the majority of the population lives in eternal states of joy and happiness.

These people have to encounter no distress, no hard work, and no discouragement. Every part of the person's life is designed so that they know nothing but perfect happiness and joy. For those who live in Omelas, life is completely perfect. They are all young and happy and healthy. Their children are never underfed. Their harvests always come in on time and in abundance. In short, for the majority of the people of Omelas, there is nothing on this Earth which they have anything to complain about.

However, beneath the joy of the majority population is the secret of the people and the town, the knowledge that one person must have absolute torment throughout their…… [Read More].

California Crip Gang Crips in. After receiving such pressure, a huge scandal broke within the ranks of the LAPD based on charges of corruption and misconduct. Many of those affected by L. The aftermath of gang violence has proven to be too much for many Los Angeles residents, including former gang members, to handle.

Many former members are left questioning the idea that the gang life is truly a family atmosphere. Former gang members all over the United States have begun to take action as to prevent future generations from making the same mistakes, andle, Many of these former criminals also believe that being open with children about gang violence will help open up dialogue about the negative aspects of gang…… [Read More].

Child Soldiers View Full Essay. References Al Arjani, S. Coping strategies of traumatized children lost their father in the current conflict.

Effects of political and military traumas on children: Clinical Psychology Review, 19, -- Psychological aspects of traumatic injury in children and adolescents. Children and mothers in war: An outcome study of a psychosocial intervention program. Child Development, 72, -- Works Cited Amnesty International. Armed Groups Kill without Mercy. References Dixon, Franklin W. The Shore Road Mystery. Encyclopedia Brown and the Case of the Sleeping Dog. It has also been argued that the strict division between childhood and adulthood at the age of 18 is a relatively modern, western phenomenon.

Despite this, even western powers have used, and still use, persons under the age of 18 in their militaries. The conception of childhood varies in different cultures and sub-cultures, and is often linked together with labour: When a person is able to work, the person is adult.

States where children are used as soldiers are associated with high child labour rates. While present in many cases through history, and today, is an understanding that children are in possession of some other features than adults, it is not then said that there is an understanding of any moral or ethical problems related to the use of children in war. The perception of childhood, maturity and the ethics connected with these concepts are therefore important factors at play when children are recruited into armed groups.

However, war has always been brutal and children always have been used as soldiers. To mythologize the past in this way do not give us an improved ability to understand the contemporary child soldier crisis.

The most important factors that determines the supply of children to be recruited as soldiers has also been presented. Poverty, education, protection of refugee camps, family relations, orphan rates, and not at least war itself, are all important supply factors. What is an even more important factor, though, is the demand for children to be recruited. Historically, child soldiers have been complimentary to adult soldiers.

What we have seen in several later armed conflicts is that children to a higher degree have been substitutes for adult soldiers. The proliferation and the increased availability of light but powerful firearms have been an enabler for the use of children as soldiers. The demand for children is also influenced by the perception that children are better soldiers, as they obey orders and are less likely to desert.

Historically, there have been no legal restrictions on the use of children in war. More than hundred years after the use of authorized non-state violence in war was outlawed, the first regulations on the use of child soldiers came in the s as a result of western, liberal initiatives. During the last five years we have gotten several cases where former leaders of different armed groups have been prosecuted and sentenced for using children as soldiers. It still remains to see whether the criminalization of the use of child soldiers will have a general preventive effect, or if it will cause obstacles in the negotiations of peace agreements.

In respect of the long history of children fighting in war, the conclusion is that the use of child soldiers will persist as long as military leaders and the societies within which they operate do not have any conceptual, moral or ethical problems by using individuals under the age of 18 as combatants, and as long as the military organizations see these individuals as useful.

University of Pittsburgh Press. Recruiting Children for Armed Conflict. Journal of Psychology in Africa , 19 1: African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child: The African Union AU.

A long way gone: Ethics, Law and Society Ashgate , 4. Breaking the conflict trap: Child Soldiers Global Report Towards a ban on child soldiers: Child soldiers in the age of fractured states.

Verdens Gang , pp. Child soldiers in Africa. University of Pennsylvania Press. Facts About Child Soldiers: C Minimum Age Convention: Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict: Paris Comitments and Principles.

Armies of the young: The Case of Colombia. The Special Court for Sierra Leone. The Enablers of War: As a result, we see that these children are conscripted to become instruments of war, to kill and be killed; child soldiers are forced to give the same violent expression to towards their communities that the rebel adults give themselves. Need to put something else in here to tie up this point and link to next paragraph.

This confrontational issue of child soldiers is characterized in western texts as unjust and an intrusion of human rights. These concepts work to emphasize and further problematize the fundamental ideologies regarding child soldiers.

The Prose a Child Soldier Diary, By Koko Latt commonly known as Mike, a former child soldier, utilises illustrative language which works to epitomise these western ideologies, opinions and creeds for the provocative issue of child soldiers. The example impairs allegations of paramilitary leaders manipulating children for their own egotistical agendas.

The abovementioned epitomizes notions of child soldiers which are utilized and mirrored in many texts. The prose authenticates western beliefs and ideologies concerning the issue of child soldiers. The relevance of these portrayals is crucial as the confrontational subject of child soldiers indeed does represent forfeiture to their virtue and denigrates our humanity.

This is among the saddest sight these days seeing the image of hundreds of thousands of children kidnapped and lured into being child soldiers. Sir Roger Moore Paragraph 3:


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If a child can be convicted for murder under these domestic laws there should be no exception for child soldier’s just because their crimes occurred in wartime. Children often become child soldiers in acts of patriotism and in want to .

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Dec 10,  · Child Soldiers “Compelled to become instruments of war, to kill and be killed, child soldiers are forced to give violent expression to the hatreds of adults” (“Child Soldiers” 1). This quotation by Olara Otunnu explains that children are forced into becoming weapons of war.

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Almost all areas that utilize child soldiers are areas that are in constant conflict (such as Iran and Iraq). Any person that is caught in an area of strife or battle can just be taken and turned into a soldier. - In the United States the idea of children serving as soldiers is an unfathomable concept; in many countries around the world, however, child soldiers perform tasks such as robbery, torture, and even murder for people such as drug lords, and political activists.

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Child soldiers a) The nature of the human rights issue A child soldier is a person under the age of 18 who participates, directly or indirectly, in armed conflicts as part of an armed force or group, in either armed and supporting roles. The use of children in armed conflict is considered to be a form of slavery or human trafficking. Child soldiers a) The nature of the human rights issue A child soldier is a person under the age of 18 who participates, directly or indirectly, in armed conflicts as part of an armed force or group, in either armed and supporting roles.