Questions should be written so they are clear and easy to comprehend. Another consideration when designing questions is whether to include open-ended, closed-ended, partially open-ended, or rating-scale questions for a detailed discussion refer to Jackson, Advantages and disadvantages can be found with each type:. Open-ended questions allow for a greater variety of responses from participants but are difficult to analyze statistically because the data must be coded or reduced in some manner.
Closed-ended questions are easy to analyze statistically, but they seriously limit the responses that participants can give. In addition to the methods listed above some individuals also include qualitative as a distinct method and archival methods when discussing descriptive research methods. It is important to emphasize that descriptive research methods can only describe a set of observations or the data collected.
It cannot draw conclusions from that data about which way the relationship goes — Does A cause B, or does B cause A? Nothing could be further from the truth. Research Methods and Statistics: A Critical Thinking Approach 3rd edition. Jamie has written seven books and co-authored one.
Find help or get online counseling now. By Jamie Hale, M. Observational Method With the observational method sometimes referred to as field observation animal and human behavior is closely observed. Students in those preschools could then be selected at random through a systematic method to participate in the study. This does, however, lead to a discussion of biases in research. For example, low-income children may be less likely to be enrolled in preschool and therefore, may be excluded from the study.
Extra care has to be taken to control biases when determining sampling techniques. There are two main types of sampling: The difference between the two types is whether or not the sampling selection involves randomization. Randomization occurs when all members of the sampling frame have an equal opportunity of being selected for the study. Following is a discussion of probability and non-probability sampling and the different types of each.
Probability Sampling — Uses randomization and takes steps to ensure all members of a population have a chance of being selected. There are several variations on this type of sampling and following is a list of ways probability sampling may occur:. Non-probability Sampling — Does not rely on the use of randomization techniques to select members. This is typically done in studies where randomization is not possible in order to obtain a representative sample.
Bias is more of a concern with this type of sampling. The different types of non-probability sampling are as follows:. The following Slideshare presentation, Sampling in Quantitative and Qualitative Research — A practical how to, offers an overview of sampling methods for quantitative research and contrasts them with qualitative method for further understanding. There are a couple of broad reasons for this:. Informal and in-depth interviews cannot be pre-planned in the same way that structured interviews can.
Whilst it is possible to know some of the initial questions you may ask research participants at the outset of the interview, the majority of questions asked are likely to arise during the interview process as you learn more about the phenomena you are interested in.
This evolutionary characteristic of informal and in-depth interviews makes it more difficult to let potential research participants know what to expect from the interview process. However, since such interview creep is inevitable, you need to be prepared for it. Nonetheless, it should still be possible to get informed consent provided you: In the case of in-depth interviews, in particular, greater disclosure and self-expression often take place during the interview process.
Since in-depth interviews tend to be more personal in nature, you need to be able to address any ethical concerns that research participants may have. For example, greater disclosure may require: Irrespective of the research method that you use, you will need to think about what data you will be recording, how that data is to be stored, and whether research participants know how their data will be used.
This is an important part of gaining informed consent. Research strategy and research ethics Research ethics is not a one size fits all approach. The impact of each of these components of research strategy on research ethics is discussed in turn: Research designs and research ethics Research methods and research ethics Sampling strategies and research ethics Data analysis techniques and research ethics.
Research designs and research ethics Each type of research design that you can use to guide your dissertation has unique ethical challenges. The impact of each of these types of research design on research ethics is discussed in turn: Quantitative research design Compared with qualitative research designs, the more structured and well-defined characteristics of quantitative research designs allow researchers to plan much of the research process before it starts.
Qualitative research design Qualitative research designs tend to be more evolutionary in nature when compared with quantitative research designs. Mixed methods research design If you are using a mixed methods research design, you will need to take into account the ethical challenges inherent in quantitative and qualitative research designs.
Research methods and research ethics The potential ethical issues raised by different research methods not only differ from one type of research method to the next e. Each of these research methods is discussed in turn: Surveys and structured interviews By their very nature, surveys and structured interviews have to be designed before the research process starts.
Observation Observation, whether overt or covert , faces additional ethical considerations when compared with the use of surveys and structured interviews. Let's look at overt and covert observation in turn: Overt observation Most research that uses observation as a research method will be overt in nature; that this, the research participants will be aware that you are observing them and should know what you are observing.
Covert observation Covert observation can be viewed as ethically problematic because it is a form of deceptive practice. Informal and in-depth interviews Compared with structured interviews and surveys , there is potentially greater uncertainty for research participants when taking part in informal and in-depth interviews.
There are a couple of broad reasons for this: Reason 1 Informal and in-depth interviews cannot be pre-planned in the same way that structured interviews can. Reason 2 In the case of in-depth interviews, in particular, greater disclosure and self-expression often take place during the interview process.
Basic types of research strategies are the, well, most basic of them all. These are the research methodologies that are done simply because the researcher wants to get to know the certain topic. Basically, basic research is done for the enhancement of the knowledge of the person running the research.
The research strategy for this dissertation was established by adopting a way which the research objectives can be answered. There are two main types of research strategies: quantitative and qualitative.
Quantitative research really targets the statistics and size of your target customer, whereas qualitative research tries to get into the mindset of that group. When doing qualitative research, consider these examples to use or . Types of Research Strategy. An appropriate research strategy not only provides a direction to your study but also helps in choosing the right methodology for collecting and analysis the data for your research.
Research Types And Research Strategies It's necessary to choose the right type of research strategy that suits the research aim and objectives. It's considered to be very essential while doing a research. Research strategy and research ethics. research methods, sampling strategies and data analysis techniques. Whilst all of these components can have ethical implications for your dissertation, we focus on research designs, a couple of research methods, sampling strategies.